Oppression in Balochistan and its struggle for freedom

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  1. Indx-techs

    Indx-techs Captain

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    The Baluchestan Dossier


    The following thread is intentioned for discussion of the social, political and economic situation in Pakistan's Baluchestan province with respect to the Baluch struggle for independence, as also the nationalist insurgency being waged therein- and to a lesser extent in Iran's Sistan-Baluchestan province- since the 1940's, attaining its zenith between 1973 and 1977, and ensuing from a long-dormant crisis of ethnic based nationalism. The thread will also discuss India's purported role in the conflict, the brutal Pakistani reppression and politico-economic isolation of the Baluch people and the movement for independence gradually gathering steam among Baluch expats abroad.

    Thanks Rage
     
  2. Indx-techs

    Indx-techs Captain

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    The thread's title clarifies the aim creation; I just gotta say,
    1. First, Not so much pictures but news of clashes & buried mysterious bodies in Balochistan are found. Reason is simple, in India internet penetration is double of Pakistani average, higher for more developed states like Kashmir. Here's the case of Balochistan whose HDI indicators are behind sub Sahara Africa. They getting proper food will be great.
    2. Second, I'm not going to cry like @Bharwana for UN intervention instead Indian government's political will power. Cuz, it's not a beggar, even worse like Pakistan who bashes same countries who give it money.
     
  3. Indx-techs

    Indx-techs Captain

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    Expanded Balochistan Freedom Charter - Crisis Balochistan
    Introduction
    Edited August 24, 2011: Balochistan is an occupied land and the Baloch people have a right to self-determination in accordance with the UN Charter and international law.
    Balochistan is at a crossroads. The Afghan border is poorly policed. The Taliban receive significant support from the ISI and support Punjabi operatives within Balochistan. Balochistan will either head toward becoming a new Sweden or be forced against its will to become Talibania.
    Pakistan needs to be put on the spot with specific demands to end militarization, occupation and the denial of human rights, and to grant the Baloch people the right to self-determination, in accordance with the UN Charter and international law. The Baloch right to self-determination includes the right to compel the Pakistanis to exit Balochistan.
    Given its coastline, minerals and irrigable land, and its intelligent industrious western-oriented population, Balochistan can reasonably aspire to become the Sweden of South Asia. All the discontented Baloch can rally around the concept “effective and fair,” and despite their many disagreements about tactics and strategy, the entire Baloch freedom movement supports a western-style liberal constitutional democracy.
    The nations of the world have a right to know what the nationalist movement stands for. This document sets forth a number of principles under which a constitution for a new independent state of Balochistan can be written and outlines innovations the Baloch would like to see incorporated into its new constitution.
    The constitution will ensure that citizens will have the rights, privileges and protections enjoyed by the citizens of the Western democracies, rights and privileges and protections which have been denied to them for half a century.
    A new Balochistan:
    1. Boundaries
    Edited August 24, 2011: the boundaries of Balochistan should include all Baloch land under Pakistani occupation since 1947, as well as land once leased to the British which was historically and culturally a part of the Baluchistan confederation. Present-day Balochistan province includes part of Pakhtun lands that the Baloch do not claim sovereignty over. That land would be returned.
    2. The State
    2a. Balochistan will be a secular state where people of all faiths, and none, have equal legal status and where no religion is privileged in law, government or public institutions.
    2b. Baloch will enjoy the free exercise of every religion so long as that causes no harm or threat to persons or property. There will be no established religion. All religions will be treated equally under the law. Balochistan will have no blasphemy law. Religious tolerance is a hallmark of the Balochi ethos. (Note for ex., the Hindu population living within the borders of Balochistan since before the time of Alexander the Great, thriving and prospering in the region of the Kali temple.)
    2c. The state will set as its priorities:
    1) the physical security of the Baloch people
    2) the use of Baloch natural resources for the benefit of the Baloch people
    3) a system of civil and criminal justice that applies equally to all Baloch
    4) a taxation regime which adheres to the motto: “Where few have too much, and fewer have too little.”
    5) the development of education
    6) establishment of a universal healthcare system
    7) job creation and economic development, including efforts to maximize tourism*
    8) the development and rehabilitation of infrastructure
    9) environmental protection and
    10) the promotion of arts and culture.(*A Hindu pilgrimage site of major importance, Hinglaj Mata, is located in Balochistan. Additionally, Balochistan is home to some of the oldest, most slowly growing and increasingly endangered forests in the world (Channar near Quetta), mud volcanoes and at Mehrgarh, the site of the world’s biggest mammal, theParaceratherium, etc. Balochistan has wild landscapes, unmatched on the planet, unique and striking geological formations and kilometers and kilometers of beaches. These form an immediate attraction to intrepid tourists and the basis to develop resorts suitable for visitors from all economic strata.)


    2d. Balochistan will actively support efforts to stop nuclear proliferation and the spread of chemical and biological weapons.
    3. Right of Return
    The people in the Baloch diaspora are welcome home. The government of Balochistan shall promote and facilitate the safe and dignified return of refugees and internally displaced persons and assist them in recovering their property and possessions.
    4. Citizenship
    Every Baloch who can prove that at least one parent is ethnically Baloch will be entitled to the rights, privileges and immunities accorded to citizens under the new constitution, as will every person who can establish that he/she has resided principally within Balochistan for 25 years or longer. All non-Baloch currently living within Balochistan will be entitled to full protection of the laws and all rights of citizens other than the right to vote and hold public office. A mechanism will be put in place whereby resident non-Baloch and non-Baloch permitted to immigrate into Balochistan can achieve citizenship.
    5. Powers of the Executive
    5a. Law Enforcement
    Protection of citizens and residents: Among the military and police powers of the executive will be the authority to enforce laws as necessary to protect the citizens and residents of Balochistan and their property.
    The government will be empowered to limit the ownership of firearms by individual persons, including possession of concealable weapons and automatic weapons. It may choose, in the interest of peace, to not enforce this right, but it may do so at a time of its choosing.
    5b. War Powers
    The government will be empowered to declare itself at war with an agency, or other organized entity, and to deal with its members as enemy combatants under the laws of war. This enables a state of war against an agency, without being at war with the entire country of the agency’s origin. It would be invoked, for ex., if it were discovered that Pakistan’s Frontier Corp or ISI were systematically killing Baloch citizens. This principle is unprecedented in history, but is an obvious and necessary adaptation to the conditions of the modern world.
    Posse Comitatus: The executive will command and control the army, navy, air force, coast guard and marine corp. It will be empowered to use and direct these forces in the pursuit of goals authorized by the legislature, and for short periods during time of extreme emergency until authorization by the legislature is practical. These armed forces may only be used outside the borders of Balochistan and in areas within Balochistan only where civilian government has lost control. Violation of this provision shall be an impeachable offense and subject to such criminal sanctions as the legislature may promulgate.
    5c. Treaties
    The government will be empowered to negotiate treaties and assume membership in organizations and associations of governments, such as the International Criminal Court, and international organizations supporting national security, economic advancement and environmental protection.
    The government may form alliances with other nations to forestall the migration of jobs to locales which offer the lowest wages, the fewest protections of worker safety and the most lax environmental standards.
    (Balochistan is essentially largely the same beautiful and unspoiled landscape of as it was in the time of Alexander the Great 2,000 years ago. We hope that it will be no less beautiful for our descendants 2,000 years from now. We are outraged at the despoilations of our countryside by greedy and cynical foreigners taking mineral resources and leaving a polluted and ruined landscape behind. We commit to adhere to the highest environmental and conservation standards as we extract benefit from the land’s natural resources.)
    5d. Tax Power and Purpose
    5d-1. Land
    To forestall the development of an endemic culture of corruption and to prevent the unjust enrichment of the well-connected, the new Baloch republic will be committed under its constitution to a policy of “No Windfalls.” Land will be taxed on location value and proven mineral reserves. The government has the right to tax land based on minerals in the ground with the objective of encouraging mining of those minerals to the benefit of all. Rationale: The landowner did not put the diamonds or oil or platinum in the ground. Its presence there is none of his doing. However, if he establishes and operates a mine, he is entitled to be rewarded commensurate with his risk and effort.
    The value of the minerals in the ground properly belongs to the people. Only the difference between their value at the surface and their value in the ground properly belongs to the mine operator who has brought them to the surface. The profits of the mining enterprise will be taxed like any other enterprise.
    Furtherance of this policy will encourage the highest and best use of the land. The policy will discourage private persons from acquiring unearned wealth from public works, such as the purchase of land adjacent to the exit ramp on a new highway. This policy will apply to all infrastructure: roads, water supply, sewers, rail, ports, mineral deposits, etc. The discoverer of new mineral deposits is entitled to reward commensurate with the risk and expense of the discovery.
    For example, if the government builds a freeway exit next to land you happen to own, you have done nothing to earn anything. You should not be enabled to realize a benefit from an increase in the value of your land generated by public effort and investment. By taxing location value of land, the government forestalls not only the injustice of such unearned benefit, but also the corruption that inevitably surrounds government projects that foreseeably increase the value of some properties.
    The legislature will be empowered to tax such windfall increases, not exceeding 100%, but a wise legislature should tax it at a somewhat lower rate in order to encourage the development necessary to fully realize the new value (to encourage the investment necessary to, for example, build a truck stop at the new exit).
    5d-2. Wealth taxation
    The government will be empowered to tax a person’s wealth. This power is in addition to any and all other forms of taxation, including taxes on income, VAT, etc. Wealth must be reported. The government will be empowered to require wealth returns, and to tax based on the wealth indicated in the returns. In order to discourage inaccurate returns, the return will be comparable to that of an estate return filed for probate. The tax rate can be progressive, increasing with increased wealth reported.
    This power can be exercised to preclude the emergence of oligarchs at the time of independence.
    5d-3. Minerals
    We commit to the highest environmental and conservation standards as we extract benefit from the land’s natural resources and will invite in experts like Greenpeace and others to help us steward development.
    5d-4. Capital expenditures and expenses
    Government budgets will distinguish between capital expenditures and operating expenses. Some items ordinarily treated as operating expenses will be treated as capital expenditures when calculating debts and deficits. Foremost among these is education. A dollar paid to a teacher is a dollar invested in a child.
    5d-5. Education
    The government will be empowered to create and maintain a system of public schools available to children independent of their tribe or ethnicity. Because English has become the lingua franca of our time in commerce and science and diplomacy, all school children shall have a rigorous course in English language beginning in first grade and continuing throughout. Courses other than English, and other language courses, shall be conducted in the local language where the school is located.
    Private Schools shall also conform to the English requirement.
    There are to be no religion classes in the public schools.
    The government will be empowered to inspect private schools to ensure that they are not fostering religious intolerance, and to penalize violators.
    Corporations and other businesses benefit enormously from secondary and post-secondary education. This private benefit from a public expenditure shall be taxed like any other windfall. This eliminates the unfairness of businesses free-riding on a burden born by the student, his/her family and the state. It also limits the role of student debt as a source of intimidation and self-censorship.
    5d-6. Economy
    Every citizen has the right to a reasonable minimum standard of living. And it is a legitimate role of the government to enable the achievement of such standard. To the extent that limitations of infrastructure and education are the obstacles to that, it is the duty of the government to overcome them as quickly as possible.
    5d-7. Legalize drugs
    We recognize that prohibitions against psychoactive drugs tend to create and advance dangerous criminal enterprises which are capable of irretrievably corrupting law enforcement and undermining government. We will not adopt such a prohibition. We will do everything possible internationally to encourage other countries to do the same. We shall be committed to educate the public about the dangers of such drugs, and to the treatment of those who nevertheless become addicted to them.
    A major funding source for the jihadists and their ilk is the illegal drug trade. Legalizing the sale of opiates, cocaine, marijuana and other prohibited drugs will deprive jihadists of this source of funding and cripple their ability to wage war on the Baloch and the Americans. (The Americans, by adopting such a policy, could save billions in defense expenditures, as well as domestic police expenditures. A small part of those savings would more than suffice to deal with the social effects of legalization.)
    6. Democratic and Personal Freedoms
    A bill of rights will be introduced which will adhere to the values set forth in the United Nations’ Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
    6a. The constitution will ensure democratic and personal freedoms, including the right of natural persons to protest for the redress of grievances, freedom of speech, the press and electronic media - values enshrined in the UN’s Universal Declaration of Human Rights and The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. It shall protect persons from discrimination against them based upon their race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, religion and/or political affiliation. It shall guarantee the right of workers to form unions to advance their interests in matters of pay, benefits, working conditions and other issues affecting their employment.
    6b. Three-verdict system
    We strongly suggest the adoption in criminal matters of the three-verdict system: guilty, not proven, not guilty. This allows the liberation of individuals against whom a prosecution has not met its burden of proof, but distinguishes those whom the defense has established to be innocent of the charge, removing the stigma of suspicion that invariably accompanies mere acquittal under the two verdict system.
    Under the two-verdict system juries that are in doubt about a defendant’s guilt frequently convict the defendant of a lesser charge as a compromise. Under the three verdict system, such doubts are properly resolved by a verdict of “not proven.” No one should be convicted of a crime unless a jury is convinced beyond a reasonable doubt. A conviction should never be a compromise.
    6c. Courts – Federal
    The federal courts shall have jurisdiction over lawsuits between members of different tribes or ethnicities and over crimes where the alleged perpetrator and victim are of different tribes or ethnicities, over lawsuits to which the government is a party, and over criminal cases where the accused with violation of federal laws.
    The federal courts shall have jurisdiction over contracts involving foreign principles/nationals to prevent local leaders from being induced to agree to contract terms that are against the public interest
    Federal courts may establish a financial minimum for access in civil proceedings, below which they go to municipal or local courts.
    6d. Courts – Judges
    Judges will be required to fully disclose their family assets and sources of income and the sources of their campaign funds and to recuse themselves from matters which can materially affect their family fortunes or those of their major contributors.
    Tax returns that judges will be required to disclose shall be comparable to those of estates in probate.
    6e. Crime and Punishment
    The government shall have the authority to define and punish crimes.
    The government’s right to punish a person for crime can only be justified by at least one of the following: incapacitation from future criminal action, deterrence of others from similar criminal action, effective rehabilitation to reduce the likelihood of a repeated offense by the offender, restitution to the victims of the crime, insofar as practical, and in rare cases, retribution necessary to prevent feuding and private vengeance.
    The people shall be safe from unreasonable searches and seizures and no warrant shall issue without probable cause.
    Irrespective of whether evidence was properly obtained, it may be introduced into court for its probative value. The determination of whether the evidence was improperly obtained shall be made by a body independent of the alleged offending officers’ government or agency which body shall also affix the punishment of the offending officers if a violation is found to have occurred.
    The people shall be safe from coerced and fabricated confessions. To ensure this protection, interrogations shall be videotaped or audiotaped. Unless there is compelling justification for an interrogation to have not been electronically recorded, the alleged results of that interrogation shall be inadmissible in court.
    Further protection shall be offered via a limited protection against self-incrimination.
    Suspects in criminal proceedings shall be given the following warning: “You do not have to say anything. However, it may harm your defense if you do not mention now something which you later rely on in court. Anything you do say may be given in evidence.”
    Allegations of police misconduct shall be made in advance of a criminal defendant’s trial. If the accusations are found to be frivolous, that finding can be introduced against the defendant at trial.
    The concept of freedom is very often a trade-off, one person’s freedom means a restriction on another person’s freedom. Private, uncontrolled unaccountable impositions on freedom have been rampant in Balochistan and it is a proper function of government to expose and limit the imposition by some private persons on others. More dangerous and more pervasive are private impositions by powerful private interests than by government and that among the duties of government is to counterbalance them. The new constitution will empower the government to limit the ability of private power to affect the public good through bribery, exercise of monopoly power, manipulation of markets and influence on elections and otherwise.
    7. Free, multi-party elections
    Any political party is eligible to participate in elections so long as it is pledged to uphold the values of the constitution of the Republic of Balochistan and does not, notwithstanding, advocate specific policies that would violate the constitution.
    7a. Legislature – Congress
    Legislators will be required to fully disclose their family assets and sources of income and the sources of their campaign funds, and to recuse themselves from voting on matters which can materially affect their family fortunes or those of their major contributors.
    Returns that legislators will be `required to disclose are comparable to those of estates in probate.
    7b. Elections
    Elections should be held on the day or days that the largest number of people don’t work.
    Instant run-off: People get to choose their first, second and third choice and the candidate that is acceptable to the largest number of voters is the winner. (Among many other virtues, this would have prevented Hitler from winning elections in 1933 with less than 40% of the vote. That virtue alone is a reason to have it everywhere.)
    All voters may choose to vote either on a geographic basis or on the basis of ethnicity, religion or other preference. Seats in the legislature shall be assigned to these non-geographical groups based on the registered numbers of those who have chosen to vote on that basis, e.g., Christians, Hindus.
    Rationale: Where a minority is scattered through a country, even though it may constitute a significant fraction of the national population, it may not be a majority in any geographical area, and even where it is, the majority might gerrymander districts so as to deprive the minority of all or adequate representation in the legislature. This will assure minorities the representation that their numbers entitle them to in a democratic legislature.
     
  4. Indx-techs

    Indx-techs Captain

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  5. Indx-techs

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    ‘Balochistan politicking’: Govt accused of changing demographics
    Stats reveal Balochi speakers’ percentage dropped sharply.

    ISLAMABAD:
    A lawmaker from Balochistan stunned many on Tuesday after he revealed that the government had secretly brought some demographic changes in various districts of Balochistan.


    “The government settled four million people in various parts of Balochistan in the past three decades,” Senator Jehanzeb Jamaldini told lawmakers in a meeting of the Senate’s Standing Committee on Interior. “With broader demographic changes in the province, the government is converting the majority into a minority.”

    The senator’s claim came at a time when the government’s latest statistics revealed that Balochistan had witnessed the highest population increase (of approximately 250%) among all the provinces.

    [​IMG]

    The percentage of Balochi speakers in the province has gone down drastically. The figures of the Pakistan Statistics Department revealed that only 35% of the province’s inhabitants speak Balochi, 25% Pashto, around 20% Brahui, and the rest speak Punjabi, Sindhi and Urdu.

    “A new settlement is being established by bringing in people from other provinces,” Jamaldini, who represents the Balochistan National Party-Mengal, informed the panel, which was discussing multiple issues relating to issuance of identity cards to foreigners, Afghan and Indian nationals in particular. “Four to five million more people are being settled in various districts of the province. The settlement of Afghan refugees also helped the government accomplish its purpose.”

    He later told The Express Tribune that he thought “deliberate efforts are being made by some non-Baloch politicians in the province”.

    Another senator from Balochistan, Mir Kabeer, sought legislation over the issue so that the new settlers are either barred from voting or living in the province. “Thousands of settlers are being settled in various constituencies just to change election results.”

    Fake CNICs for foreigners

    In a fresh crackdown against the issuance of fake computerised national identity cards (CNICs) to foreigners, the Federal Investigation Agency (FIA) has arrested more than 200 people, the FIA DG Akbar Hoti informed the panel.

    National Database & Registration Authority (NADRA) Chairman Usman Mobin also informed the participants that more than 100 officials of the department had been dismissed from service following the arrests. “NADRA has also closed its office in Karachi’s Baldia Town, where almost all officials were involved in issuing CNICs to people of Afghan, Indian and other nationalities.”

    Published in The Express Tribune, September 9th, 2015.

    http://tribune.com.pk/story/953365/balochistan-politicking-govt-accused-of-changing-demographics/
     
  6. Indx-techs

    Indx-techs Captain

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    A Brief History of Balochistan

    The arid region of Balochistan, situated at the eastern end of the Iranian plateau, is split almost evenly between Pakistan’s Balochistan province and Iran’s Sistan-Baluchistan province (a small portion of the southern parts of Afghanistan’s Nimruz, Helmand, and Kandahar provinces are also part of Baluchistan). Balochistan is today at the forefront of major geopolitical events. Pakistan has faced almost constant turmoil in Balochistan since its independence, even as it struggles to secure and develop the region with Chinese help.

    The port access offered by Gwadar in Balochistan is an important component in China’s emerging transportation network across Asia. Right across the border in Iran, India is struggling to complete Chabahar, its attempt to answer Gwadar and link to Afghanistan by going around Pakistan. Iranian Balochistan is Iran’s soft underbelly, a restless Sunni region in a mostly Shia country, a place where Saudi Arabia can make mischief using groups like the radical Sunni Jundallah.

    But what about Balochistan itself? How did it come to be divided and ruled by other peoples? Surprisingly, very little has been written about Balochistan. It has always been uncomfortably sandwiched between the great Persian and Indian empires to its west and east. And unlike their Afghan neighbors to the north, who also felt the constant tug of war between Persia and India, the people of Balochistan had no mountains to protect them. It is a region at once neglected, exploited, and ignored.

    Balochistan takes its names from the Baloch who inhabit it, a mostly Sunni Muslim people who speak an Iranian language, Balochi, that is oddly classified neither as an eastern Iranian language like Pashto to its north or a southwestern Iranian language like Persian to its west. Rather, Balochi is a northwestern Iranian language, most closely related to Kurdish. It is thus a matter of some conjecture as to when and how the Baloch actually got to Balochistan.

    In ancient times, the region was a part of the Achaemenid Persian Empire and then various Persian and Indian empires and local kingdoms and was presumably inhabited by some mix of Iranian and Indian peoples. People in Baluchistan followed Hinduism, Buddhism, and Zoroastrianism. The region acquired a notorious reputation due to Alexander the Great disastrously marching back to Babylon after his Indian campaign through its deserts, leading to the deaths of thousands of soldiers.

    By the time of the rise of Islam in the 600s, Balochistan was loosely controlled by the Sassanid Persian empire, but as that empire faced the onslaught of the Arabs, Balochistan, then known as Makran (after the name of its coastal region), passed to the control of the Rai Dynasty of Sindh. The Arabs defeated this dynasty in 644 at the Battle of Rasil and conquered Makran, which converted to Islam but continued to remain a lightly populated, peripheral region.

    In the 11th century, the Seljuk Turks invaded Persia. This is thought to have stimulated the eastward migration of the nomadic tribes (ancestors of today’s Baloch) of central Iran and the area south of the Caspian sea into Balochistan. As these tribes were used to living marginally in arid territory, the move to the even more arid Balochistan was not a catastrophe and was indeed a path of less resistance than fighting the invaders, who competed for the same pasture space in Iran. Around the same time, Balochistan’s largest minority group, the Brahui (who speak a Dravidian language like other South Indian languages) migrated to Balochistan from central India and formed a symbiotic relationship with the Baloch. Many Baloch become sedentary during this period, farming oases. They formed many kingdoms and tribal confederations, sometimes independent, sometimes under the suzerainty of external empires.

    In the 1500s, Balochistan, like Afghanistan to its north, became divided into zones of control between the Safavid Persian Empire to its west and the Mughal Empire to its east. This approximately reflects the Iran-Pakistan border today. Because Persia’s Sistan province is a frontier province, it was loosely controlled and its people had leverage over its central government (they could swear allegiance to the Mughals if they wished). As a result, unlike most of the rest of Iran, it managed to escape the central government’s policy of implementing Shia Islam. As for the Mughals, while initially they ruled Balochistan directly from Multan in the Punjab (in today’s Pakistan), it was never a place of much importance. Control was delegated to a local vassal who organized the Khanate of Kalat in 1666 (located in central Balochistan). On behalf of the Mughals, Kalat ruled over the vassals of the states of Las Bela, Kharan, and Makran, which make up most of Pakistani Balochistan. In 1783, the Khan of Kalat granted suzerainty to the port of Gwadar to a man who later became the Sultan of Oman and who decided to keep it as part of his domains. Pakistan had to buy it back from Oman in 1958.

    The division of Balochistan into western and eastern halves temporary lapsed during the 18th century as first the Safavid and then the Mughal Empire, and finally the brief empire of Nader Shah collapsed. Balochistan reverted to a collection of principalities, some of which then fell under the control of Afghanistan, but most remained independent. The most important of these independent principalities was Kalat. Within a century, though, the Qajar dynasty established itself in Persia, and the British in India, squeezing the Baloch again. The British attacked Kalat in 1839 as part of their related invasion of Afghanistan, installing a friendly ruler. In 1854, Kalat became an associated state of the British, and in 1877 the British established the Baluchistan Agency to deal with the Baluch princely states in its Indian Empire and directly rule of the northern half of Balochistan, including Quetta.

    In the meanwhile, Persia re-conquered western Balochistan, which has remained part of Iran ever since except for a brief period in the 1920s when it acquired its own “king.” The British and Persians demarcated the boundary between their territories in 1871-1872, with some changes made in 1895-1896. Pakistan, which absorbed the princely state of Kalat in 1955 (allegedly Kalat had tried to find a way to join India instead), reconfirmed this boundary with Iran with some very minor changes during a demarcation in 1958-1959.

    These agreements basically established the modern frontier between Iran and Pakistani Balochistan, but it is not an arbitrary division that suddenly severed the Baloch nation in two. The control of the western part of Balochistan from Iran and the eastern from the subcontinent has been a fact more or less for over five centuries, and its current division, based on the Anglo-Persian division represented zones of existing control on the ground rather than an unenforceable, random line. Nonetheless, there is no doubt that ethnic Baloch on both sides of the frontier are getting the short end of the stick, because their needs are subordinated to the needs of their states, but unlike the Pashtun and Kurds, they have neither the numbers nor the firepower to seriously contest this and negotiate further rights.

    http://thediplomat.com/2016/02/a-brief-history-of-balochistan/
     
  7. Indx-techs

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    @YarS @Bharwana @Osmanovic
    Not even news, you will just find bodies buried or roting in open in Balochistan.

    No reporter, no social media, have fun on thread!
    Pakistan security forces killed four Baloch in fake encounters
    • [​IMG]

    Pakistani security forces recently handed over four bodies, including that of a 14-year-old boy, to the District Headquarter Hospital at Gwadar. A press release issued in Brussels by the Baloch Human Rights Organisation (BHRO) claimed that the security forces had eliminated the four persons in a fake joint operation in the Belar and Kulanch areas of Gwadar district. The BHRO also claimed that one person had also been arrested, and added that the four persons killed had been missing for months and years.

    The dead bodies were identified on the basis of their national identity card (NIC), student card and chits with their names found in their pockets. One of the victims was identified as 14-year-old Zafar Baloch, the son of Master Abdul Rahman. He was a resident of Jan Mohammad Bazar Dasht in District Kech. His parents had migrated to Gwadar to take the education of their children forward, and Zafar had been reported missing since August 13, 2016.

    The second victim was identified as Salahuddin, the son of Abdul Samad. He was a resident of Mashkay and had been missing for the last 19 months. The BHRO claimed that he had been abducted by the security forces on March 25, 2015 from Quetta. The third victim was identified as Sajid Ali, the son of Kareem Bakhsh. He was a resident of Ward Number 4, Pasni, and was abducted from his home on January 31, 2016.

    The fourth was identified as Sabir Ali, the son of Mohammed, who had been missing since August 4, 2014. There was no information provided on the person arrested. The BHRO said that in October 2016, it had received reports of more than 210 enforced disappearances and 57 persons being reportedly killed in different incidents by Pakistan’s security forces.
     
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  9. Indx-techs

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  10. Indx-techs

    Indx-techs Captain

    Joined:
    Dec 12, 2016
    Messages:
    471
    Likes Received:
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    Location:
    India
    Hobby:
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